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Lipstick Science + What Lipstick Am I Wearing? | Lab Muffin Beauty Science

Lipstick Science + What Lipstick Am I Wearing? | Lab Muffin Beauty Science

hi it’s michelle from lab muffin beauty science  chemistry phd skin care nerd and lipstick wearer   a lot of you have been asking me to talk more  about the science behind makeup products and   a lot of people have been asking me what lipstick  i’ve been wearing so i decided to combine the two   in this video if you like nerding out about the  science behind beauty products give this video   a like subscribe to my channel and click the  notification bell so you don’t miss any videos   so today i thought i’d talk a little bit about  lipstick science so what goes into a lipstick   i’m going to be talking about the ingredients  that go into a lipstick and the science behind   how they make it work first let’s talk about what  her lipstick is i mean we all know what a lipstick   is but let’s break it down further lipsticks are  solid sticks that you drag across your skin and   they leave behind a thin layer of color that means  that if you really narrow down to the very basics   a lipstick has to be solid at room temperature  hard enough not to break when you apply some   pressure to it soft enough that’ll leave behind a  layer when you drag it across your skin and that   layer has to stay even for a while even though  your lips are one of the places on your face   that moves around the most and it encounters lots  of water so here’s what we have in the lipstick   to make this all happen there’s a lot of variation  with different brands different types of lipsticks   different finishes but i had to commit to a  percentage to make this diagram so this is just   representative most of the lipstick is made up  of oily substances like waxes waxy paste and oils   this is sometimes called the base of the lipstick  and has to strike a good balance between being   hard enough not to break and soft enough to leave  a nice layer on your lips without too much effort   these oily substances are very water repellent  or hydrophobic which is important because your   lips encounter lots of water from drinking and  from your spit the more solid ingredients in   a lipstick are usually waxes they’re sometimes  called structuring agents and they’re what gives   a lipstick its solid structure some of the really  common solid wax ingredients that you’ll see   are canauba wax candelilla wax beeswax  microcrystalline wax and ozokerite these all   have really high melting points above 60 degrees  or 140 degrees fahrenheit and these keep your   lipsticks mostly solid even when they’re on your  lips or in a not too hot handbag generally the   more wax you have in a lipstick the harder it will  be then you have the oils and waxy pastes these   are soft at room temperature and so they’ll soften  the overall lipstick so that it’ll actually apply   a lot of these are also emollient moisturizers so  they’ll keep your lips soft and moisturized there   is a massive range of ingredients that different  lipsticks use for this you have plant oils like   castor oil butters like shea butter fatty esters  like isosteryl isostearate hydrocarbon based   ingredients like polybutene and mineral oil and  silicones like phenol trimethicone oils also give   a shiny finish and so matte lipsticks tend to have  a bit less of these this is why matte lipsticks   often have this reputation of being really drying  and sucking all the moisture out of your lips but   the fact that they have less oils also means that  they tend to last longer on your lips so they form   a harder layer that doesn’t move around and slip  around so much an important aspect of the base is   that to get a smooth lipstick it has to dry into  small microscopic crystals not larger chunky ones   so this means the lipstick applies more smoothly  and also it’s less prone to breaking because   a small layer of the lipstick can be left behind  without breaking off a large chunk if you have a   grainy textured lipstick this is usually because  the base isn’t a great blend another issue that   you might see if you have a bad base mixture is  sweating this is when you see droplets on the   surface of the lipstick and usually it’s because  some of the ingredients in the base aren’t playing   well together and so some of the oil gets squeezed  out sometimes this happens in hot weather because   the lipstick melts a bit and then re-solidifies  and that process squeezes more oil out then we   have the pigment which is what gives a lipstick  its color one of the important things about   lipstick is that it is on your mouth which means  that it’s one of the few cosmetic products that   we will actually end up eating quite a bit of not  as much as fear-mongering places would have you   believe but you do end up eating quite a bit of it  that’s the reason why some pigments aren’t allowed   in lip products at all or they’re only allowed  at certain concentrations the color pigment is   dispersed in the base this means that it doesn’t  dissolve in the base but it’s ground up into tiny   microscopic pieces that are spread out evenly in  the base and so it looks like it’s one continuous   color it’s sort of like protein powder and a  protein shake but blended really really well you   get a much nicer looking lipstick if the pigments  are ground up really finely and spread out really   evenly in the base the color additives in a  lipstick are usually in that final section of an   ingredients list that says may contain usually in  a lipstick range the lipstick base stays the same   and it’s just the pigments that change that’s why  you usually don’t see a range of lipsticks that   have both matte and shiny finishes but you usually  see a range that has the same finish and different   colors in there it’s relatively easy to change  the pigments in a lipstick around but if you want   to change the finish you have to change the oils  and that means you have to re-jig the whole base   and this is a lot more effort there are lots of  different pigments that you’ll see in lipsticks   these are things like inorganic colors like iron  oxide organic colors and their lake versions which   have names like red 7 or red 7 lake there’s also  carmine which comes from crushed beetles you’ll   see white pigments as well like zinc oxide and  titanium dioxide these make your lipstick more   opaque and so it hides your underlying lip color  and so when you put it on your lips it looks more   like the color in the tube rather than your lips  plus the color in the tube there are also effect   pigments and lipsticks and this is how you get  a glittery or shimmery or pearl or matte finish   for shimmery effects lipsticks use larger  particles than your color pigments would be   so these are things like mica bismuth oxychloride  and pearl these are usually added near the end   of the lipstick making process so you don’t  end up mixing it too much and smashing it up   and not having these big flecks anymore with matte  lipstick sometimes there’s still a bit too much   oil for it to look properly matte and so there’ll  be something added like silica or clay on top of   that you want the lipstick to stay good for longer  and so you have preservatives and antioxidants   lipsticks are generally easier to preserve than  other cosmetic products because they don’t contain   water they’re very oil-based and so that makes  it a lot harder for mold and bacteria to get a   foothold so usually it’s just the surface of  the lipstick that’s a bit of a worry and so   preservatives like parabens and phenoxyethanol are  added to stop bacteria mold growing on the surface   but the big problem with oils and butters is that  they tend to go rancid when they’re exposed to   oxygen for too long and so antioxidants slow this  from happening you’ll see things like vitamin e   bha and bht but the oils and waxes in the base  can still go rancid because if you think about   the lifetime of the lipstick it’s relatively long  and oils and waxes on their own do already sort of   smell a bit funny and taste a bit funny like  we don’t go around drinking oil for a reason   and so to hide this funny taste and funny smell  we have flavors and fragrances in there as well   there are other optional ingredients in there  as well things like sunscreen actives to give   your lips some sun protection and also active  ingredients like in skin care this is just a   basic overview there are lots of other little  things that might come up when you’re trying   to optimize a lipstick formula the listing  might stick to the mold when it’s being made   and so you might need to add something that helps  it shrink a little bit as it hardens and so that   unsticks it from the mold you might also need  pigment dispersers to make the color more even   so the other question is what lipstick am i  wearing the lipstick i’m wearing when people   usually ask me about what lipstick i’m wearing  is this one it’s a pretty old lipstick from teeez   cosmetics it’s from eve’s ready to wear collection  and it’s called classy caramel this is a really   pretty brick color it’s super moisturizing and  it glides on really well it’s been discontinued   for a long time and i know it’s kind of gross but  i still use it but in my defense this is based on   ingredients that don’t go rancid easily there  are lots of hydrocarbons which are very i guess   unnatural and on the bright side it means that it  lasts for ages without having serious rancidity or   microbe problems the other reason i’m still using  it is because it’s really hard to find a really   moisturizing lipstick and it’s really hard to find  this sort of brick color anymore apparently a lot   of lipstick brands have been discontinuing brick  colors because they’re a bit dated and 90s but i   think it looks really good i’m not really good at  following trends but from the fact that everyone’s   been asking me about it i think the demand is  still there so please can we have some more   so in the interest of recommending a lipstick  that other people could get and the fact that   i should probably replace it i went around to  a whole bunch of stores to try to find a dupe   i think i might have swatched like a hundred  lipsticks that look like they could be a dupe   but i only managed to find two conveniently one  is kinda high-end and one is budget-friendly   the first one is becca ultimate lipstick love  in rouge this is a really nice creamy opaque   formula and it comes in a really nice luxe  tube which gives a satisfying sound when you   open it and it clicks in nicely with a magnet  this is a bit less moisturizing and doesn’t   apply as smoothly but it’s really pigmented and  leaves a pretty even stain after it wears off the other lipstick that match really well is  revlon super lustrous lipstick in extra spicy   revlon are my favorite drugstore lipstick brand  i just find that the formulas are really nice   and really even and they’re just really easy  to use this is more moisturizing than the   becca lipstick but less pigmented it’s sort  of in between the becca and teeez lipsticks   these aren’t quite as moisturizing and glossy  as the teeez cosmetics one so sometimes when i   wear them i put on an extra glossier lipstick on  top i’ve been using revlon super lustrous glass   shine in rum raisin this is a really moisturizing  lipstick it’s almost like a lip balm but the color   isn’t quite as intense and so if i’m trying to go  for a more opaque lipstick look i layer that on   top of something else on its own it’s really good  for casual wear if you just want something that   gives a bit of color without being a full lipstick  it’s a lot like revlon’s discontinued lip butters some of the sales assistants recommended that i  go to mac because mac tends to do nice 90s colors   but they didn’t actually have a good match mac  chili is the same color but matte and so that   doesn’t give the same sort of finish the same  sort of easy application as my teeez cosmetics   one we did find that using good form over auburn  lipliner gave the same sort of effect but i prefer   a more all-in-one lipstick that’s easy to  reapply so i guess i’m still looking for   the perfect dupe of this lipstick if you have  any suggestions leave them in the comments and   i’ll try to track them down and compare them  i hope you like this video it’s a little bit   different from the usual skin care content  but i hope it was still really interesting   click the like subscribe check me out  on instagram and check out my blog if   you like nerding out about beauty and i’ll  see you next time for more beauty science


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